The Moorish Wanderer

معاهدة فاس للحماية، يوم السبت 30 مارس 1912

Posted in Ancient Times, Happy Times, Moroccan History & Sociology, Morocco, Read & Heard by Zouhair ABH on January 27, 2012

تعليق: الترجمة المقترحة ليست الأولى من نوعها كما أشارت لها الجريدة الإلكترونية لكم. وشكرا

1912

أول عدد للجريدة الرسمية نشر المعاهدة، لكن فقط بالفرنسية. العدد الأول للجريدة الرسمية بالعربية نشر في شتنبر 1913، وليس هناك أي منشورة رسمية للمعاهدة بالعربية، على الرغم أن عامة المغاربة كانت تعاني من الأمية، و النخبة لا تتكلم إلا اللغة العربية. أهذا نسيان أم أن لا أحد بعد الاستقلال حاول طرح السؤال التالي: “كيف تم التخلي عن السيادة المغربية؟” ولذلك أقترح ترجمة للمعاهدة كما تم نشرها بالفرنسية يوم فاتح نونبر 1912 مع عدد من الوثائق المتعلقة بتطبيق الحماية

معاهدة تنظيم الحماية الفرنسية للمملكة الشريفة، كما وقعت بين فرنسا و المغرب يوم 30 مارس 1912 الميلادية

اتفقت حكومة الجمهورية الفرنسية و حكومة صاحب الجلالة السلطان الشريف على تطبيق نظام جديد لضمان الاستقرار الداخلي و الأمن العام، و ذلك لإدخال الإصلاحات التي ستمكن المغرب من إنجاح تنميته الاقتصادية، عبر تطبيق البنود التالية

فصل 1: حكومة الجمهورية الفرنسية اتفقت مع حكومة السلطان الشريف على الإصلاحات الإدارية و القضائية و التربوية و الاقتصادية و المالية و العسكرية التي تعتبرها الحكومة الفرنسية نافعة لتطبيقها في المغرب

فصل 2: صاحب الجلالة الشريفة السلطان يعترف من الآن للحكومة الفرنسية بعد مشاورتها للسلطات المخزنية الحق بانتشار قواتها العسكرية على التراب المغربي كما تعتبرها مهمة للحفاظ على أمن وسلامة المبادلات التجارية و تدبير الشؤون الأمنية على البر و في المياه المغربية

فصل 3: حكومة الجمهورية الفرنسية تتعهد بمساندة صاحب الجلالة الشريفة صد كل خطر يمس شخصه الشريف أو عرشه أو ما يعرض أمن بلاده للخطر. المساندة تشمل أيضا ولي عهده و سلالته

فصل 4: القرارات التي سيطبقها نظام الحماية يصادق عليها السلطان الشريف باقتراح من الحكومة الفرنسية أو من مفوضيها. هذا يشمل القوانين الجديدة و التعديلات على القوانين الجارية على السواء

فصل 5: المفوض المقيم العام يمثل الحكومة الفرنسية لدى السلطان الشريف، و للمقيم العام كامل الصلاحيات لتطبيق مقتضيات معاهدة الحماية
المقيم العام هو الوسيط الوحيد بين السلطان والممثلين الدبلوماسيين الأجانب، كما له كل الصلاحيات في ما يخص الأجانب المقيمين بالمملكة الشريفة

فصل 6: المنتدبون الدبلوماسيون و القنصلين الفرنسيون يمثلون الرعايا المغاربة و يدافعون عن المصالح المغربية في الخارج
لا يمكن لصاحب الجلالة الشريفة توقيع أي معاهدة دولية بدون موافقة حكومة الجمهورية الفرنسية

فصل 7: تتعاهد كلى حكومتي الجمهورية الفرنسية و السلطان الشريف على تطبيق الاتفاق المشترك للإصلاح المالي الضروري لضمان مصالح الدائنين للخزينة الشريفة، وكذا للمحافظة على عائدات الخزينة

فصل 8: يتعهد صاحب الجلالة السلطان الشريف ألا يقترض لنفسه أو لغيره مالا عاما أو خاصا دون موافقة الحكومة الفرنسية

فصل 9: هاته المعاهدة تصادق عليها حكومة الجمهورية الفرنسية و ستبعث بها للسلطان الشريف في أسرع وقت ممكن

يوقع كلى الطرفين هاته المعاهدة بخاتميهما

إمضاء

رونو                                                             مولاي عبد الحفيظ

Glimpses of Morocco’s History Vol. 3

March 30th is only days away. March 30th, 1912, a rainy and sad day, Imperial Sultan Moulay Abdelhafid signed the Fes Treaty, thereby abdicating Morocco’s sovereignty to France and to Spain. Immediately after word has it the Sultan, ‘أمير المؤمنين’, the First Imam, sold the country to the Christians. neighbouring tribes rebelled and marched on Fès, where the few European residents were massacred by the local populace. The soon-to-be Résident Général, Gen. H. Lyautey, directed a column to break the encirclement and free the city.


Who signed the Treaty? Who Sold Morocco? Who is a Traitor to the Nation? (Picture Wikipedia)

Next year will be the 100th anniversary of the treaty a representative of the Alaouite family signed -in exchange of 40.000 pounds. Judas Iscariot sold Jesus for 30 pieces of silver, so obviously Morocco is a bit above the going rate (and modern valuation techniques were not fashionable at the time). I wonder whether some kind of celebration will be organized; Remember the pompous celebration of Fès‘ 1200th birthday, preposterously portrayed as ‘1200 years of Moroccan history‘, as if nothing happened before, or simply as if Morocco did not exist before Idriss 1st had Fès built in 808, or as if nothing existed before Okba Ibn Nafii conquered the Far-West (المغرب الأقصى).

In view of obvious facts however, especially those documented by other sources, bending history is no longer viable, and again, I wonder how things are going to be spun, especially when one considers that Sultan Abdelhafid is directly related to Hassan II  (as in his Great-Uncle) So when Moncef –it’s high time you packed up and got the hell out of your ministry– Belkhayat starts accusing people of High Treason, I would suggest he takes a closer look to pre-1912 history before he starts sprouting his baseless accusations.

I apologize for the heinous introduction. That’s because I can’t stand the Makhzen myths (and take great pleasure in challenging them)

Morocco in 1912 was less a country than a formal sovereign entity: large parts of its territory was De Facto occupied by both France and Spain, and Tangier was already an international city, with delegations -and their ‘protected’ enjoying total impunity from a Makhzen shadow of its former self. Historians like to date back this Götterdämmerung of sorts to the death of Hassan Ist (1894). Court intrigue and a youthful successor did nothing but exacerbate colonial appetites over Morocco: the French and Spanish of course, but the British were still considering their chances as well, and the Germans too thought of Morocco as their first attempt to build an overseas colonial empire. If anything, Morocco was, in its own right, the next Sick Man of North Africa (after Tunisia in 1883). These tumultuous circumstances saw the enthronement of Moulay Abdelhafid (after an ambivalent, even murderous, interregnum) on the condition that He, defender of the Moroccan Umma, denounces all past signed treaties with the Christian nations, re-affirm the Imperial sovereignty over contumacious tribes and gain back those territories the French and Spanish expeditionary forces have occupied. He was preferred over his brother Moulay Abdelaziz for his supposed piety and orthodoxy. He was confirmed as the new Sultan by Fès’ scholars, and:

‘Fez accepted him as Sultan, on the distinct condition that the city was to be exempted from all taxation. This His Majesty solemnly promised and he kept his promise for a few weeks, until, in fact, he was strong enough to break it and then he collected taxes, legal and illegal [Note: The Maks was considered un-Islamic, hence its status as illegal tax], with gusto never before experienced’. (W. Harris, Morocco That Was)

Later on however, he realized the Imperial treasure was empty, and perspective of levying new taxes, or even collecting taxes were bleak, as effective Imperial authority was limited to the few kilometres surrounding some urban centres. Moulay Abdelhafid started his bid for power, but soon realized he was as powerless as his brother before the tribes and the western powers.

Louis Hubert Gonzalve Lyautey

Maréchal De France, Hubert Lyautey, Pacifier of Morocco, first "Résident-Général" Image via Wikipedia

The reason why the old Imperial authority died away so rapidly was mainly due to the its foundation on the religious prestige of its rulers (Sultans direct descendent of the Prophet)as well as Morocco’s isolation, and fanaticism of its people (and the ensuing repression in tax collecting Harkas) postponed the inevitable and kept a certain degree of independence. Now that money could not be levied and troops not paid, tribes and zawyas could riot and declare autonomy from the Makhzen authorities, while French troops steadily progressed accros the desert from the South, and in 1907, from the Eastern border. Now, the main argument regularly invoked to justify the treaty was that ‘it held Morocco together’. This statement overlooks the fact that Morocco as a sovereign entity was a purely nominal concept: true the Imperial Court and its protocol were upheld, and ambassadors paid their respect in Fès -and later on, in Rabat- to the Sultan. Other than that, real power, the violent exaction of taxes on the Moroccan nations, the only real symbol that asserts Imperial sovereignty, disappeared De Facto, and with Western occupation, De Jure as well.

The newly appointed Resident-General Hubert Lyautey, accompanied by French minister Henri Regnault proposed to the Sultan a deal, whereby his nominal authority would be preserved, or as it will come to be known, ‘protected’, in exchange of an explicit recognition of France’s and Spain’s rights over Morocco. The recognition was to be formalized in a treaty, presented March 13th, effectively signed March 30th in the Imperial palace at Fès.

Obediently, the Sultan succumbed, but the protectorate [did not] resemble […] the British veiled protectorate in Egypt that would have granted the Makhzen autonomy in areas like Justice and Administration, but the French protectorate in Tunisia, where the Bey was reduced to a cypher. (C.R. Pennell, ‘Morocco Since 1830, NYU Press. 2000)

Why, in light of the above-described circumstances, did Sultan Abdelhafid signed the treaty? Why did he sign his abdication act? ‘the official document of abdication was handed over. In return he received a cheque of 40,000, the last instalment of the agreed sum of money which the new Protectorate Government of Morocco had undertaken to pay him.‘ (Harris, 1921). Isn’t that a wilful treason, selling His throne and Morocco in exchange of an estate in Tangier and a pile of Cash? A lucid observer can conclude the Sultan signed the treaty to protect the Throne, and not Morocco.

How is that for ‘The Glorious Sherifians Throne’ ?

Course 4 : Communities in Morocco

Posted in American Minority Voices by Zouhair ABH on February 10, 2009

As a non-French, non-American citizen, I would rather discuss communities relations in Morocco, a situation that is, if I may say so, unique throughout the world, or shall we say, the north African region.

Moroccan communities (or Tribes that is their primitive shape) are a part of a complex and an ancient political system know as ‘Makhzen‘. The French word ‘Magasin‘ comes from Makhzen: مخزن (warehouse). Indeed, the main goal of the ruling institution was to gather taxes -that were paid in kind, usually crop and wheat. The Makhzen is actually a weak authority, in the sense that it got no real centralized or even federal power, but the one to attract different communities, based on religious ground : most if all the ruling dynasties used Islam as a way to claim power, whether these dynasties were Sharifian (i.e with blood ties to the prophet Muhammad) or presenting themselves as the rightful refomers (sort of Cromwells). Theses dynasties used the Makhzen machine bureaucracy to establish their authority over Morocco and other territories.

How could one link the Makhzen to the communities, and how could theses links interfere with the kind of ties the various communities established between themselves ?

There is a first division between rural and urban areas : Urban people -i.e, those with deep and ancient urban history that is- feel that since their are the guardians of a certain civilization (ways of behaviour, manners, a certain spoken language), they are superior to the people belonging to the  rural areas. In a sense, it is true urban people are more ‘western-like’ civilized, but then, they play a small part in the economic process : the wealthy of them do have farms and stuff outside the city (usually Rabat, Fès and Marrakesh and now Casablanca). Historically, during famine periods, they were the first to suffer -not all of them of course, but only those who did not prevent it by stockpiling or by owning a piece of land, but then again, only the wealthier ones could afford it-. the small part they played in the home economic process was though important : the urban elite had the monopoly of foreign trade, and controlled imports of rare goods. As Marxists and Structuralists would say, economic power was to determine social structures.
Same should apply to the rural elite : they were usually warriors, or/and civil servant. Civil service in Morocco -that was also a matter of constabulary and military- had three major purposes : to raise taxes, to ensure internal peace and levy soldier when wartime comes. The sultan would have to appoint warlords usually members of his family -one is less suspicious towards their own people-. These warlords though, are not 100% reliable; Whenever they feel that central authorities are weakening, they start a rebellion, mostly by refusing to pay the taxes. The sultan has then a variety of courses of actions, ranging from peaceful negotiation to the Harka (الحركة), a brutal punitive expedition that ends often into a bloodbath. pre-Protectorate Moroccan politics lies in a delicate balance of repressions and negotiations the sultan had to lead with a bunch of sporadic forces in order to keep the country more or less united.
Warlords might come from urban areas, but because of the omnipresent shadow of ‘Siba‘ or anarchy, though things are actually far from turning into anarchy : usually, dissidence in Morocco means that a certain region, a loose federation of warring tribes would still recognize the sultan as Allah’s representative, but would refuse to pay taxes.

Another way to look at communities in Morocco could be done through ethnographic studies : native Amazigh-speaking tribes, Arab-long established tribes, Jewish minorities, Turks, Europeans and Andalusians, and mixed relations between all of them.

souss

Soussi dressed in local outfit and sporting a dagger

* Native Amazighs : considered as the native Moroccans, established a long ago. Some historians considered they came from Yemen and Arabic peninsula. It is true for some Amazighs, but not for all of them; indeed, there are three general linguistic and geographical gatherings : Ch’leuhs, Soussis and Riffis. Ch’leuhs and Riffis are believed to be a part of Indo-European lineage (strong genetic traces of Nordic characteristics)
* Arab tribes : the Muslim conquerors of the 7th century established in the area and started mixing with local population. Arab lineage could have

religious ties (“شريف” Sharif, that is a descent of the Prophet) or ‘normal’ Arab lineage.
* Jewish communities : an integrated part of the Moroccan society. protected by the Sultan (but not always, since little bloodless pogroms were organized once a while) Jewish Moroccans were mostly specialized in commerce, foreign or local trade, as well as in charge of the Sultan’s private finances.
* Andalusians : they came from Spain after the Reconquista kicked out the last moor kingdom in Granada. it is difficult to state whether they were Arabs, amazighs or spanish. It is though sure they have mixed roots and enriched considerably Moroccan culture. There was also an important Jewish community that escapes the Catholic inquisition.
* Other races : Turks, because of the shared borders with Algeria (that was a Ottoman stronghold till 1830). Europeans that were captured ans slaves during the 15th and 16th centuries (The famous Sale Pirates attacked European ships)

gharnati

Gharnati-Andalusian orchestra

There is no denying that all those tribes or communities that claim to be ‘pure breed’ are actually more mixed than they think or expected, but strong core identity separate them in many issues, especially for the power struggling. This way of making politics is however in contradiction with the pursing of democracy, which implies a radical change in people’s minds, in order to promote meritocratic criterion in choosing national political leaders, rather than tribal schemes.

fes

Fes, one of the 4 Imperial cities